a. Identify altered states of consciousness, include: sleeping, dreaming, hypnosis, meditation, biofeedback, and mind-altering substances.
b. Describe the sleep cycle and circadian rhythm.
c. Explain theories of sleeping and dreaming.
d. Investigate the validity of hypnosis.
e. Analyze the physical and psychological issues associated with addiction.
f. Explain how the major drug classes (stimulants, depressants, and hallucinogens) affect neurotransmission and behaviors.
There are four sleep stages; one for rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and three that form non-REM (NREM) sleep. These stages are determined based on an analysis of brain activity during sleep, which shows distinct patterns that characterize each stage.
The breakdown of a person’s sleep into various cycles and stages is commonly referred to as sleep architecture. If someone has a sleep study, this sleep architecture can be represented visually in a hypnogram.
The classification of sleep stages was updated in 2007 by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM). Before that, most experts referred to five sleep stages, but today, the AASM definitions of the four stages represent the consensus understanding of the sleep cycle.
The collective term sleep disorder refers to conditions that affect sleep quality, timing, or duration and impact a person’s ability to properly function while they are awake. These disorders can contribute to other medical problems, and some may also be symptoms for underlying mental health issues.
In 1979, the American Sleep Disorders Association published the first classification system dedicated to sleep disorders. Our knowledge and understanding of sleep health has evolved over the past four decades. More than 100 specific sleep disorders have been identified and today’s classifications use complex methodologies to categorize these disorders based on causes, symptoms, physiological and psychological effects, and other criteria.
The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) intended to measure daytime sleepiness that is measured by use of a very short questionnaire. This can be helpful in diagnosing sleep disorders. It was introduced in 1991 by Dr Murray Johns of Epworth Hospital in Melbourne, Australia.
This questionnaire was developed to determine the level of daytime sleepiness in individuals. It has become one of the most frequently used methods for determining a person’s average level of daytime sleepiness.
Please rate how likely you are to doze or fall asleep in the following situations by selecting the response that best applies. If you have not done some of these activities recently, select what would most likely happen if you were in that situation.
The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) is a self-report questionnaire that assesses sleep quality over a 1-month time interval. The measure consists of 19 individual items, creating 7 components that produce one global score, and takes 5–10 minutes to complete.
Developed by researchers at the University of Pittsburgh, the PSQI is intended to be a standardized sleep questionnaire for clinicians and researchers to use with ease and is used for multiple populations. The questionnaire has been used in many settings, including research and clinical activities, and has been used in the diagnosis of sleep disorders.
Clinical studies have found the PSQI to be reliable and valid in the assessment of sleep problems to some degree, but more so with self-reported sleep problems and depression-related symptoms than actigraphic measures.
Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) - Scores of '5' or Greater indicate poor sleep quality.
Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) - Scores of '5' or Greater indicate poor sleep quality.
The Iowa Sleep Disturbances Inventory (ISDI) is a new measure of self-reported sleep difficulties, which was designed to help facilitate research on the overlap of sleep disturbances and psychopathology.
This instrument was developed in 2 large student samples using principal factor analyses; the psychometric properties of the scales then were examined in 3 additional samples (students, psychiatric patients, sleep disorder patients).
The ISDI consists of 11 specific scales (Nightmares, Initial Insomnia, Fatigue, Fragmented Sleep, Nonrestorative Sleep, Anxiety at Night, Light Sleep, Movement at Night, Sensations at Night, Excessive Sleep, Irregular Schedule) and 1 general scale (Daytime Disturbances).
The structure of the ISDI generalizes across both patient and non-patient samples. In addition, the ISDI scales are internally consistent, show good retest reliability, demonstrate convergent and discriminant validity with widely used measures of sleep disturbances, and display criterion validity in relation to psychiatric patient status and specific symptoms of depression and anxiety.
Iowa Sleep Disturbances Inventory (ISDI) - Calculate your scores as a percentage
The Glasgow Content of Thought Inventory (GCTI) is an instrument concerned in evaluating individuals´ thoughts when they cannot fall asleep. It consists of 25 items. Total scores may range from 25 to 100. The higher the score the greater the intrusiveness and frequency of dysfunctional thoughts at bedtime.
Glasgow Content of Thought Index (GCTI) - Calculate your 3 sub-scale scores
Hypnosis is defined as “a state of consciousness involving focused attention and reduced peripheral awareness characterized by an enhanced capacity for response to suggestion”(Elkins, Barabasz, Council, & Spiegel, 2015). Patients can be helped to engage in hypnosis with a hypnotic induction which is a sequence of instructions and suggestions that help an individual to become hypnotized, and which traditionally involve instructions for relaxation.
Once hypnotized suggestions can be given for alterations in experience. With suggestions “one person is guided by another to respond to suggestions for changes in subjective experiences, alterations in perception, sensation, emotion, thought, or behavior”(Green, Barabasz, Barrett, & Montgomery, 2005).
Suggestions are what lead to the most interesting effects in hypnosis. For example, if someone experiencing pain is hypnotized they may feel focused and relaxed, but it is not until they are given a suggestion such as ‘the painful area is beginning to feel numb and insensitive’ that they start to experience significant pain relief.
One theory is that suggestions work by altering our expectancies of what is going to happen and our experiences follow from these response expectancies: a critical part of the hypnotic experience is that suggested effects are experienced as involuntary and effortless.
Hypnosis - Medical and Psychological Applications [5:40mins]
Hypnosis - An Altered Mental State [4:00mins]
Hypnosis - Mind over Pain [4:15mins]
Aubrey Marie Ferguson Case Study
Produced in partnership with the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, the National Institute on Drug Abuse, and the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism -- the episode describes current options for diagnosis and treatment.
Froemke and Maysles collaborated on "A Mother's Desperation," in which the aforementioned scene patiently captures the tenderness and exasperation of a mother driving her runaway, heroin-addicted daughter home after having her arrested.
"I could run a rehab," pronounces Aubrey, the strung-out, 23-year-old all-American blonde. She betrays hints of surprise, confusion and long-lost confidence in her bleary eyes as she gazes out the window at her middle-class neighborhood. Aubrey has been in and out of rehab 12 times in the last seven years.
Assembled by some of the nation's top documentary filmmakers, and consisting of nine segments that focus on case studies and cutting-edge treatments that challenge traditional beliefs about addiction, this film features insights from experts on trends and treatments in the ongoing battle against drug and alcohol abuse.
For more information on Addiction and the HBO special, and case-studies examined within this video
Aubrey Marie Ferguson
Allison Park, Pennsylvania
Jun 10, 1982 – Jul 31, 2018
Aubrey was born on June 10, 1982 and passed away on Tuesday, July 31, 2018. Aubrey was a resident of Pennsylvania at the time of passing. In high school, she was captain of the cheerleading squad at Hampton High School where she graduated in the year 2000.
Ecstasy, commonly referred to as X, is one of the most popular illegal drugs in America, taken regularly by three-quarters of a million people See the amazing biological effects the drug has on the body and how it produces feelings of empathy. Nat Geo cameras go inside clubs and parties to witness firsthand how users respond to the substance in a social environment.
In the " Alcohol" special edition of "Drugged," viewers were presented with a story that was both a tragedy and a cautionary tale. Ryan, a 28-year-old alcoholic, drank three pints of vodka a day. Ryan turned to alcohol when his father, who was also an alcoholic, passed away four years ago. In just four years, Ryan has done severe damaged to his body, and yet he seems fully aware of the danger he's in, and oddly” My organs are shot. They hurt every day," he said at one point. "It would be weird feeling if they didn’t." And yet still he wouldn't stop drinking. While Ryan did agree to and enter rehab at the end of filming, he died just 17 days into treatment.
Cocaine: a powerful and a destructive drug glamorized by models, rock stars and celebrities. We zoom inside the human body from the moment the substance enters our systems. With the guidance of doctors, we learn about the intense highs and painful lows of one of the most widely used stimulants in the U.S.
ollow an entire marijuana high from start to finish. Nat Geo takes viewers on a journey through our organs from the first inhalation of cannabis to the lung membranes and into the bloodstream. Hear from users who enjoy cannabis for reasons including creativity, stress reduction and medicinal purposes. Gaining insights from doctors and experts, we'll expand our understanding of what marijuana really does to our bodies.
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